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While Surjan coiled the nets, Hajtilovic loaded the fish onto a small dolly and manuevered it through the narrow harbor gate to the morning market in Gundulic Square. Up a narrow lane, a group of children straggled past a 16th-century church.
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I first came to Dubrovnik in as a visitor searching for an eye in the Balkan storm. Kosovo then was in flames; Belgrade under siege. Bosnia remained intact only by force of international fiat. I needed a respite from Sarajevo, where, working as a journalism instructor, I happened to live a mile from a mass grave.
That devastated city was recovering from the war that had ended there only the previous year. Mostar, the last major stop before the Dinaric Alps, had been reduced to rubble. The Ottoman bridge that for centuries had spanned the NeretvaRiver was destroyed, a casualty of the malignant xenophobia then infecting Bosnia and Herzegovina.click
Operational Wave Modelling in the Adriatic Sea with the Wind Wave Model
But as I traveled down the coastal highway beyond the mountains, the air began to warm, scenes of destruction grew less frequent and police actually began to smile. At the village of Ston, gateway to the PeljesacPeninsula, I entered the old, square-mile Republic of Dubrovnik, which enjoyed an independent status for a millennium, to For the next hour, I meandered past fishing villages nestled beneath foothills verdant with vineyards.
In the distance, an archipelago seemed to float in the mist. And then it appeared in the twilight: a walled city rising from the rocky coast like an Adriatic Camelot. Dubrovnik was founded at the start of the seventh century amid the chaos that followed the fall of the Roman Empire. Its first residents were refugees from Epidaurus, a Roman settlement farther down the Adriatic coast that had been overrun by invaders. To escape, the Romans moved to a forested, stony island separated from the coast by a narrow channel. They called the settlement Ragusium, derived from a word for rock.
Croats, invited to Dalmatia by the emperor Heraclius to help fight the barbarians, soon joined them. Their name for the town was Dubrovnik, from an old Slavic word for woodland. It was a propitious location. Midway between Venice and the Mediterranean, the city—its name now shortened to Ragusa— also lay on the east-west axis between Catholic Rome and Orthodox Byzantium. Washed by the prevailing sirocco south wind that drives ships north toward Venice, it was a natural port of call. It also was the terminus of the caravan route from Constantinople.
For Renaissance popes, the Christian Republic of Ragusa proved a vital bulwark against advancing Islam. Ottoman sultans, on the other hand, viewed the town as a vital link to Mediterranean markets for their Balkan provinces.
Protected by two freestanding forts, the wall, more than a mile in circumference, surrounds the old city and contains five round towers, 12 quadrilateral forts, five bastions and two corner towers. The French finally commandeered it in Surrounded by greedy empires and quarrelsome city-states, the city leaders had two great fears: being occupied by a foreign power or dominated by a charismatic autocrat who might emerge from their own noble families. To ensure against the latter, they invested executive power in a rector who, unlike the Venetian doge, who was elected for life, could serve for only one month, during which time his peers kept him a virtual prisoner.
Garbed in red silk and black velvet and attended by musicians and palace guards when his presence was required outside the palace, the rector was accorded tremendous respect. But at the end of the month, a member of another noble family unceremoniously replaced him.
Maintaining independence was a more challenging task. Save for a few salt deposits on the mainland at Ston, the tiny republic had no natural resources. Its population was not large enough to support a standing army. Ragusa solved the problem by turning its brightest sons into diplomats and regarding the paying of tribute as the price of survival. Diplomacy was key. When Byzantium faltered in and Venice became a threat, Ragusa turned to the South-Italian Normans for protection. In , after Hungary expelled Venice from the eastern Adriatic, Ragusa swore allegiance to the victors.
But when the Ottoman Turks defeated Hungary at the battle of Mohacs in , Ragusa persuaded the sultan in Constantinople to become its protector. In , the republic faced a dilemma, however, when the Turkish navy sailed into the eastern Mediterranean, captured Cyprus and began attacking Venetian possessions. It is also very important for oceanic modelling, with the wave input being key to the accurate modelling of oceanic surface stress, sediment resuspension, and also to oceanic current modelling.
The model uses near-surface winds dynamically adapted to 2 km grid spacing over the 3-day forecast range.
Wind | Definition of Wind by Lexico
The model setup uses an unstructured grid to make the forecasts. The numerical modellization uses an implicit scheme that we describe. Comparison with wave radar and buoys show no underestimate and smaller absolute errors. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. We thank the project Copernicus for making available buoy wave measurements and Ifremer for collecting the altimeter data from the satellites. Part of the work presented in the paper was done under the frame of project Ecological response of northern Adriatic to climatic changes and anthropogenic impact EcoRENA by Croatian science Foundation.
We thank the referees for careful reading and Fabrice Ardhuin for help with the altimeter. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Chapter First Online: 15 February This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Acknowledgements We thank the project Copernicus for making available buoy wave measurements and Ifremer for collecting the altimeter data from the satellites.
Ardhuin, F. Google Scholar. Explicit wave averaged primitive equations using a generalized lagrangian mean. Ocean Modelling, 20 , 35— CrossRef Google Scholar.
Semiempirical dissipation source functions for ocean waves. Part I: Definition, calibration, and validation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 40 9 , — On turbulent fluxes during string winter bora wind events. Boundary-Layer Meterology, , — Battjes, J. Energy loss and set-up due to breaking of random waves. Coastal Engineering Research Council.
Numerical simulation of pulsations in the bora wind. Quarterly Journal Royal Meteorological Society, , — Benetazzo, A. Wave-current interaction: Effect on the wave field in a semienclosed basin. Ocean Modelling, 70 , — Bertotti, L. Deterministic and ensemble-based prediction of Adriatic Sea sirocco storms leading to acqua alta in Venice. The predictability of meteooceanographic events.
Ocean Dynamics, 61 9 , — Netuno analysis of a wind and wave forecast system for the Mediterranean Sea.
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